What / Where is Prostate Gland?

The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis.

The urethra runs through the centre of the prostate, from the bladder to the penis, letting urine flow out of the body.


What does the prostate do?

The prostate gland fluid helps in making semen and protects, nourishes the sperm.


What conditions can affect the prostate gland?

  1. Prostatitis
  2. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy(BPH)
  3. Prostatic Cancer.


Prostate enlargement- Does it effect everybody?

Almost all men develop enlargement of prostate as they age.

By age 60, 50% of men will have some signs of BPH.

By age 85, 90% of men will have signs of the condition.

About half of these men will develop symptoms that need to be treated.



How do I know that my prostate is enlarged?(Symptoms)

There is no one particular symptom associated with prostate enlargement, but generally they are

  • Frequent or urgent need to urinate, usually at night (nocturia).
  • Difficulty starting urination
  • Weak urine stream or a stream that stops and starts
  • Dribbling at the end of urination
  • Inability to completely empty the bladder


Less common signs and symptoms include:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Inability to pass urine.
  • Blood in the urine.


Why does prostate enlargement cause urinary symptoms?

The Urine pipe passes through the centre of the prostate.

Most men have continued prostate growth throughout life

When the prostate enlarges, it begins to block urine flow.


When Should I see The Doctor?

If you are having any of the above urinary problem, even if they are not troublesome,

It is better to discuss them with your physician.

To land up in urinary obstruction can complicate things.


How will he check my prostate gland for enlargement?

After taking a detailed history regarding your urinary symptoms, the following options may be taken

  • DRE- Digital Rectal Examination.

It is the per rectal examination of the prostate to assess the nature and degree of enlargement.

  • PSA Levels- Prostate Specific Antigen.

It is prostatic protein which guides the diagnosis and therapy.

  • TRUS- Trans Rectal Prostatic Ultrasound. It is done to see

a. The size of prostate,

b. Post-void Residual urine

c. Guide the biopsy.

  • Prostatic Biopsy.

It is usually done through rectum to confirm the diagnosis.


How will my doctor know if the prostate enlargement is not cancer?

The above said tests will guide the Physician to the correct diagnosis.

  1. DRE– Benign prostate – it is soft, smooth with mucosa freely mobile over it.

Cancer of prostate –  it is nodular, hard with attached mucosa.

  1. PSA levels – a level of 4 ng/mL or higher justifies a biopsy of the prostate to try and determine if a man has prostate cancer.
  2. Biopsy – Usually give the diagnosis and type of prostate cancer


Is Digital Rectal Examination Painful?

A doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate. It is uncomfortable but not very painful.


What are my options for treatment?

If your Symptoms are tolerable or not Affecting you Quality Of Life the treatment can be postponed.

A wide variety of treatments are available for enlarged prostate

  1. Medication
  2. Surgery
  3. Minimally Invasive Therapies.


What if i do not take any treatment, what will happen?

Complications of an enlarged prostate can include:

  1. Urinary retention.  Sudden inability to urinate.
  2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs).  Inability to fully empty the bladder can increase the risk of infection in your urinary tract.
  3. Bladder stones.  These are generally caused by an inability to completely empty the bladder.
  4. Bladder damage.  A bladder that hasn’t emptied completely can stretch and weaken over time.
  5. Kidney damage.  Pressure in the bladder from urinary retention can directly damage the kidneys.
  6. Blood in Urine. (Hematuria)

Do I have more chance to develop cancer if my Prostate is enlarged?

No an enlarged prostate does not increase your risk of Prostate cancer

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