The prostate is a gland that is a part of the male reproductive system that wraps around the male urethra.
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide.
Incidence rates of prostate cancer are considered low in Asian and North African countries.
Prostate cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumour that
- usually begins in the outer part of the prostate.
- cancer grows very slowly, limited to the prostate.
- many men with the disease will never know they had the condition.
- most patients with this type of cancer can live for years with no problems.
- It spreads (Metastasis) to the bones, lymph nodes, liver or lungs.
What are the risk factors for prostate cancer?
60% in men over 65 years of age.
- Race or ethnicity:
More likely in – African-American
Less likely in -Asian and Hispanic
- Family history:
Prostate cancer can run in families.
more common – North America, Europe the Caribbean, and Australia.
less common – Asia, Africa, and South and Central America.
- Genetic factors:
Mutations in a portion of the DNA called the BRCA2 gene increases the risk.
high risk- red meats and fatty foods low.
- Obesity also linked to a higher risk of the disease.
What are the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer?
The general symptoms of prostate enlargement in cancer prostate are
- Frequency Of Urination
- Difficulty in starting the urine stream.
- A weak or interrupted urine stream.
- Straining to urinate.
- Dribbling of urine.
- Inability to urinate (urinary retention.)
- Difficulty urinating when standing, requiring sitting during urination.
- Pain with urination or ejaculation.
- Blood in the urine or in the semen.
In case of Advanced prostate cancer that has already spread (called metastatic prostate cancer)
- Pain – dull, then progressively severe, pain in the bones, especially the low back
- weight loss
- Increasing shortness of breath while doing activities previously well tolerated
- Low-impact fracture of bone(s)
What specialists treat prostate cancer?
A team of doctors mainly, urologist, oncologist, radiologist, onco-surgeons, radiotherapist, are involved with your treatment.
Each has a specific role to play from diagnosis to treatment and rehabilitation
What Tests are done to conclude the Diagnosis of prostate cancer?
- DRE- Digital Rectal Examination.
It is the per-rectal examination of the prostate to assess the nature and degree of enlargement.
- PSA Levels- Prostate Specific Antigen.
It is prostatic protein which guides the diagnosis and therapy.
- TRUS- Trans Rectal Prostatic Ultrasound.
It is done to see
- The size of prostate,
- Post-void Residual urine
- Guide the biopsy.
- Prostatic Biopsy.
A spring-loaded needle that allows the urologist to remove tiny cores of tissue from the prostate gland.
Usually, 12 cores are obtained, six from each side.
The cores are examined under the microscope by a pathologist.
It is usually done through rectum to confirm the diagnosis.
PSA- How does it help in diagnosis?
The PSA test can indicate an increased likelihood of prostate cancer if
- the PSA is at an increased or elevated level,>4ng/ml
- it does not provide a definitive diagnosis.
- Prostate cancer can be found in patients with a low PSA level but this occurs less than 20% of the time.
What are the treatment options for prostate cancer?
- Radiation therapy
- Focal therapy
- Hormonal therapy
- Immunotherapy/vaccine therapy
- Bone-targeted therapy
- Monoclonal antibody therapy